Xin Chen,Jun Zheng,Chuanxia Liu,Tingting Li,Xiao Wang,Xuewen Li,Miaofei Bao,Jiangnan Li,Li Huang,Zhaoxia Zhang,Zhigao Bu,Changjiang Weng
Emerg Microbes Infect.2023 May 30;2220575.doi: 10.1080/22221751.2023.2220575. Online ahead of print.
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and acute hemorrhagic viral disease with high morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs and wild boars. The disease has become a global threat to the pig production industry and has caused enormous economic losses in many countries in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism underlying ASF virus (ASFV) entry of the host cells is not fully understood, which restricts the development of vaccines and antiviral-drugs of ASFV. In this study, we found that the host protein CD1d acts as a host factor, which mediates ASFV entry into the host cells. As the main capsid protein on the surface of ASFV virions, p72 can mediate viral entry. Using IP-MS assay, CD1d was identified as a binding partner of p72 on surface of ASFV virions. Knockdown of CD1d expression and blocking the cells with anti-pCD1d antibody, or incubating ASFV virions with soluble CD1d protein could significantly inhibit ASFV infection. CD1d is located on the membrane surface of primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and mediates the virus entry via binding to p72. CD1d knockout or CD1d knockdown assay showed that CD1d could facilitate ASFV virions internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Furthermore, CD1d interacts with EPS15 to mediate ASFV entry via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Overall, our findings revealed that CD1d is a novel host-entry factor involved in ASFV internalization via the EPS15-clathrin endocytosis axis and a potential target for antiviral intervention.
Keywords: African swine fever virus; CD1d; Clathrin-mediated endocytosis; EPS15; Virus entry.