Xing Guo,Zhenyu Zhang,Chaohui Lin,Huiling Ren,Yijing Li,Yuan Zhang,Yuxing Qu,Hongxin Li,Saiwen Ma,Huijuan Xia,Rongkuan Sun,Haoyu Zu,Yuezhi Lin,Xiaojun Wang
Autophagy.2022 Nov 6;1-18.doi: 10.1080/15548627.2022.2139922. Online ahead of print.
The quadrilateral reassortant IAV A/(H1N1) pdm09 is the pathogen responsible for the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The virus spread rapidly among hosts causing high mortality within human population. Efficient accumulation of virions is known to be important for the rapid transmission of virus. However, the mechanism by which A/(H1N1) pdm09 promotes its rapid replication has not been fully studied. Here, we found the NS1 of A/(H1N1) pdm09 mediated complete macroautophagy/autophagy, and then facilitated self-replication, which may be associated with the more rapid spread of this virus compared with H1N1WSN and H3N8JL89. We found that the promotion of self-replication could be mainly attributed to NS1pdm09 strongly antagonizing the inhibitory effect of LRPPRC on autophagy. The interaction between NS1pdm09 and LRPPRC competitively blocked the interaction of LRPPRC with BECN1/Beclin1, resulting in increased recruitment of BECN1 for PIK3C3 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3) and induction of the initiation of autophagy. In conclusion, we uncover the unique molecular mechanism by which A/(H1N1) pdm09 utilizes autophagy to promote self-replication, and we provide theoretical basics for the analysis of the etiological characteristics of the A/(H1N1) pdm09 pandemic and the development of anti-influenza drugs and vaccines.Abbreviations: 293T: human embryonic kidney 293 cells; 293T_LRPPRC: stable LRPPRC expression 293T cells; 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; A549 cells: human non-small cell lung cancer cells; AA: amino acid; ACTB: actin beta; BECN1: beclin 1; BECN1 KO: BECN1 knockout 293T cells; Cal: calyculin A; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; CQ: chloroquine; DC: dendritic cell; Eug: eugenol; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HA: hemagglutinin; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; IAVs: Influenza A viruses; IFN: interferon; JL89: A/equine/Jilin/1/1989 (H3N8); LAMP2: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2; LRPPRC: leucine rich pentatriicopeptide repeat containing; LRPPRC KO: LRPPRC knockout 293T cells; M2: matrix 2; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MDCK: Madin-Darby canine kidney cells; MOI: multiplicity of infection; MS: mass spectrometry; NP: nucleoprotein; NS1: non-structural protein 1; NS1JL89: non-structural protein 1 of A/equine/Jilin/1/1989 (H3N8); NS1pdm09: non-structural protein 1 of A/(H1N1) pdm09; NS1SC09: non-structural protein 1 of A/Sichuan/2009 (H1N1); NS1WSN: non-structural protein 1 of A/WSN/1933 (H1N1); PB1: polymerase basic protein 1; PB1-F2: alternate reading frame discovered in PB1 gene segment; PIK3C3: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PR8: A/PR/8/34 (H1N1); Rapa: rapamycin; RFP: red fluorescent protein; SC09: A/Sichuan/2009 (H1N1); SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; STK4/MST1: serine/threonine kinase 4; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; WHO: World Health Organization; WSN: A/WSN/1933 (H1N1); WSN-NS1JL89: WSN recombinant strain in which NS1 was replaced with that of JL89; WSN-NS1SC09: WSN recombinant strain in which NS1 was replaced with that of SC09.
Keywords: Autophagy; BECN1; IAVs; LRPPRC; NS1.