Yudi Pan,Longjun Guo,Qian Miao,Ling Wu,Zhaoyang Jing,Jin Tian,Li Feng
J Virol.2023 Jan 17;e0187122.doi: 10.1128/jvi.01871-22.Online ahead of print.
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic virus causing obvious neurological disorders and reproductive failure in pigs. PRV entry into target cells is a complex multistep process initiated by interacting viral envelope glycoproteins with cellular receptors. In the current study, we found that thrombospondin 3 (THBS3) plays an important role in PRV entry into target cells, indicating that THBS3 is a new PRV coreceptor. To confirm this hypothesis, the knockdown of THBS3 in several permissive cells inhibited PRV primary infection, and overexpression of THBS3 in PK15 cells promoted PRV infection. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout markedly reduced PRV infection in PK15 cells. Antibodies against THBS3 blocked PRV infection in naturally permissive target cells. Moreover, soluble THBS3 protein neutralized the infectivity of PRV. Mechanistically, THBS3 interacted with the PRV gD via its N and C termini to facilitate PRV binding in permissive and nonpermissive cells. Also, in the absence of Nectin-1, THBS3 promoted cell-to-cell fusion mediated by virus glycoproteins. While THBS3 alone could not increase virus entry, overexpression of it in the presence of Nectin-1 promoted virus entry into CHO-K1 cells. Our results have identified THBS3 as a critical player in PRV binding and subsequent membrane fusion and entry. IMPORTANCE Herpesvirus entry occurs through a cascade of virus-cell interactions, and multiple surface glycoproteins play a role in virus binding and entry during the virus invasion process. Early studies showed that attachment to cells by PRV, as well as other alphaherpesviruses, is mediated by interactions between the viral glycoprotein gC and cell membrane proteoglycans carrying heparan sulfate chains (HSPGs). However, gD may also be involved in virus binding in an HSPG-independent manner. To date, the respective cellular receptors are still unknown. In this report, we identified a host molecule, THBS3, involved in gD-mediated PRV binding and subsequent membrane fusion and entry, which increases our understanding of the initial events in alpha herpesvirus infections.
Keywords: Pseudorabies virus; THBS3; entry; fusion.