Yang Wu,Mingwei Li,Jin Tian,Haoxin Yan,Yudi Pan,Hongyan Shi,Da Shi,Jianfei Chen,Longjun Guo,Li Feng
PLoS Pathog.2023 Oct 6;19(10):e1011702.doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1011702. Online ahead of print.
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a family of the largest RNA viruses that typically cause respiratory, enteric, and hepatic diseases in animals and humans, imposing great threats to the public safety and animal health. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), a newly emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets all over the world and poses potential risks of cross-species transmission. Here, we use PDCoV as a model of CoVs to illustrate the reciprocal regulation between CoVs infection and host antiviral responses. In this study, downregulation of DNA polymerase delta interacting protein 3 (POLDIP3) was confirmed in PDCoV infected IPEC-J2 cells by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and Western blotting analysis. Overexpression of POLDIP3 inhibits PDCoV infection, whereas POLDIP3 knockout (POLDIP3-/-) by CRISPR-Cas9 editing significantly promotes PDCoV infection, indicating POLDIP3 as a novel antiviral regulator against PDCoV infection. Surprisingly, an antagonistic strategy was revealed that PDCoV encoded nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) was responsible for POLDIP3 reduction via its 3C-like protease cleavage of POLDIP3 at the glutamine acid 176 (Q176), facilitating PDCoV infection due to the loss of antiviral effects of the cleaved fragments. Consistent with the obtained data in IPEC-J2 cell model in vitro, POLDIP3 reduction by cleavage was also corroborated in PDCoV infected-SPF piglets in vivo. Collectively, we unveiled a new antagonistic strategy evolved by PDCoV to counteract antiviral innate immunity by nsp5-mediated POLDIP3 cleavage, eventually ensuring productive virus replication. Importantly, we further demonstrated that nsp5s from PEDV and TGEV harbor the conserved function to cleave porcine POLDIP3 at the Q176 to despair POLDIP3-mediated antiviral effects. In addition, nsp5 from SARS-CoV-2 also cleaves human POLDIP3. Therefore, we speculate that coronaviruses employ similar POLDIP3 cleavage mechanisms mediated by nsp5 to antagonize the host antiviral responses to sustain efficient virus infection.