Lei Na,Liuke Sun,Mengmeng Yu,Yingzhi Zhang,Yuan Zhang,Zhenyu Zhang,Haili Zhang,Ting Qi,Wei Guo,Xing Guo,Shida Wang,Jingfei Wang,Yuezhi Lin,Xiaojun Wang
Sci Adv.2024 Feb 2;10(5):eadj4163.doi: 10.1126/sciadv.adj4163. Epub 2024 Jan 31.
Species-specific differences in acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member A (ANP32A) determine the restriction of avian-signature polymerase in mammalian cells. Mutations that evade this restriction, such as PB2-E627K, are frequently acquired when avian influenza A viruses jump from avian hosts to mammalian hosts. However, the mechanism underlying this adaptation process is still unclear. Here, we report that host factor ANP32 proteins can be incorporated into influenza viral particles through combination with the viral RNA polymerase (vPol) and then transferred into targeted cells where they support virus replication. The packaging of the ANP32 proteins into influenza viruses is dependent on their affinity with the vPol. Avian ANP32A (avANP32A) delivered by avian influenza A virions primes early viral replication in mammalian cells, thereby favoring the downstream interspecies transmission event by increasing the total amount of virus carrying adaptive mutations. Our study clarifies one role of avANP32A where it is used by avian influenza virus to help counteract the restriction barrier in mammals.