Meng Chen,Meng-Hang Wang,Xue-Gang Shen,Hao Liu,Yu-Yuan Zhang,Jin-Mei Peng,Fandan Meng,Tong-Yun Wang,Yuan-Zhe Bai,Ming-Xia Sun,Zhi-Jun Tian,Xin Yin,Xue-Hui Cai,Yan-Dong Tang
J Virol.2022 Sep 29;e0131822.doi: 10.1128/jvi.01318-22. Online ahead of print.
Pseudorabies virus (PRV), which is extremely infectious and can infect numerous mammals, has a risk of spillover into humans. Virus-host interactions determine viral entry and spreading. Here, we showed that neuropilin-1 (NRP1) significantly potentiates PRV infection. Mechanistically, NRP1 promoted PRV attachment and entry, and enhanced cell-to-cell fusion mediated by viral glycoprotein B (gB), gD, gH, and gL. Furthermore, through in vitro coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, NRP1 was found to physically interact with gB, gD, and gH, and these interactions were C-end Rule (CendR) motif independent, in contrast to currently known viruses. Remarkably, we illustrated that the viral protein gB promotes NRP1 degradation via a lysosome-dependent pathway. We further demonstrate that gB promotes NRP1 degradation in a furin-cleavage-dependent manner. Interestingly, in this study, we generated gB furin cleavage site (FCS)-knockout PRV (Δfurin PRV) and evaluated its pathogenesis; in vivo , we found that Δfurin PRV virulence was significantly attenuated in mice. Together, our findings demonstrated that NRP1 is an important host factor for PRV and that NRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral intervention. IMPORTANCE Recent studies have shown accelerated PRV cross-species spillover and that PRV poses a potential threat to humans. PRV infection in humans always manifests as a high fever, tonic-clonic seizures, and encephalitis. Therefore, understanding the interaction between PRV and host factors may contribute to the development of new antiviral strategies against PRV. NRP1 has been demonstrated to be a receptor for several viruses that harbor CendR, including SARS-CoV-2. However, the relationships between NRP1 and PRV are poorly understood. Here, we found that NRP1 significantly potentiated PRV infection by promoting PRV attachment and enhanced cell-to-cell fusion. For the first time, we demonstrated that gB promotes NRP1 degradation via a lysosome-dependent pathway. Last, in vivo , Δfurin PRV virulence was significantly attenuated in mice. Therefore, NRP1 is an important host factor for PRV, and NRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral drug development.
Keywords: C-end Rule; entry; glycoprotein B; neuropilin-1; pathogenesis; pseudorabies virus; virulence.